/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-or-later */ /* * Copyright (C) 2001 Momchil Velikov * Portions Copyright (C) 2001 Christoph Hellwig * Copyright (C) 2006 Nick Piggin * Copyright (C) 2012 Konstantin Khlebnikov */ #ifndef _LINUX_RADIX_TREE_H #define _LINUX_RADIX_TREE_H #include <linux/bitops.h> #include <linux/gfp_types.h> #include <linux/list.h> #include <linux/lockdep.h> #include <linux/math.h> #include <linux/percpu.h> #include <linux/preempt.h> #include <linux/rcupdate.h> #include <linux/spinlock.h> #include <linux/types.h> #include <linux/xarray.h> #include <linux/local_lock.h> /* Keep unconverted code working */ #define radix_tree_root xarray #define radix_tree_node xa_node struct radix_tree_preload { local_lock_t lock; unsigned nr; /* nodes->parent points to next preallocated node */ struct radix_tree_node *nodes; }; DECLARE_PER_CPU(struct radix_tree_preload, radix_tree_preloads); /* * The bottom two bits of the slot determine how the remaining bits in the * slot are interpreted: * * 00 - data pointer * 10 - internal entry * x1 - value entry * * The internal entry may be a pointer to the next level in the tree, a * sibling entry, or an indicator that the entry in this slot has been moved * to another location in the tree and the lookup should be restarted. While * NULL fits the 'data pointer' pattern, it means that there is no entry in * the tree for this index (no matter what level of the tree it is found at). * This means that storing a NULL entry in the tree is the same as deleting * the entry from the tree. */ #define RADIX_TREE_ENTRY_MASK 3UL #define RADIX_TREE_INTERNAL_NODE 2UL static inline bool radix_tree_is_internal_node(void *ptr) { return ((unsigned long)ptr & RADIX_TREE_ENTRY_MASK) == RADIX_TREE_INTERNAL_NODE; } /*** radix-tree API starts here ***/ #define RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT XA_CHUNK_SHIFT #define RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE (1UL << RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT) #define RADIX_TREE_MAP_MASK (RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE-1) #define RADIX_TREE_MAX_TAGS XA_MAX_MARKS #define RADIX_TREE_TAG_LONGS XA_MARK_LONGS #define RADIX_TREE_INDEX_BITS (8 /* CHAR_BIT */ * sizeof(unsigned long)) #define RADIX_TREE_MAX_PATH (DIV_ROUND_UP(RADIX_TREE_INDEX_BITS, \ RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT)) /* The IDR tag is stored in the low bits of xa_flags */ #define ROOT_IS_IDR ((__force gfp_t)4) /* The top bits of xa_flags are used to store the root tags */ #define ROOT_TAG_SHIFT (__GFP_BITS_SHIFT) #define RADIX_TREE_INIT(name, mask) XARRAY_INIT(name, mask) #define RADIX_TREE(name, mask) \ struct radix_tree_root name = RADIX_TREE_INIT(name, mask) #define INIT_RADIX_TREE(root, mask) xa_init_flags(root, mask) static inline bool radix_tree_empty(const struct radix_tree_root *root) { return root->xa_head == NULL; } /** * struct radix_tree_iter - radix tree iterator state * * @index: index of current slot * @next_index: one beyond the last index for this chunk * @tags: bit-mask for tag-iterating * @node: node that contains current slot * * This radix tree iterator works in terms of "chunks" of slots. A chunk is a * subinterval of slots contained within one radix tree leaf node. It is * described by a pointer to its first slot and a struct radix_tree_iter * which holds the chunk's position in the tree and its size. For tagged * iteration radix_tree_iter also holds the slots' bit-mask for one chosen * radix tree tag. */ struct radix_tree_iter { unsigned long index; unsigned long next_index; unsigned long tags; struct radix_tree_node *node; }; /** * Radix-tree synchronization * * The radix-tree API requires that users provide all synchronisation (with * specific exceptions, noted below). * * Synchronization of access to the data items being stored in the tree, and * management of their lifetimes must be completely managed by API users. * * For API usage, in general, * - any function _modifying_ the tree or tags (inserting or deleting * items, setting or clearing tags) must exclude other modifications, and * exclude any functions reading the tree. * - any function _reading_ the tree or tags (looking up items or tags, * gang lookups) must exclude modifications to the tree, but may occur * concurrently with other readers. * * The notable exceptions to this rule are the following functions: * __radix_tree_lookup * radix_tree_lookup * radix_tree_lookup_slot * radix_tree_tag_get * radix_tree_gang_lookup * radix_tree_gang_lookup_tag * radix_tree_gang_lookup_tag_slot * radix_tree_tagged * * The first 7 functions are able to be called locklessly, using RCU. The * caller must ensure calls to these functions are made within rcu_read_lock() * regions. Other readers (lock-free or otherwise) and modifications may be * running concurrently. * * It is still required that the caller manage the synchronization and lifetimes * of the items. So if RCU lock-free lookups are used, typically this would mean * that the items have their own locks, or are amenable to lock-free access; and * that the items are freed by RCU (or only freed after having been deleted from * the radix tree *and* a synchronize_rcu() grace period). * * (Note, rcu_assign_pointer and rcu_dereference are not needed to control * access to data items when inserting into or looking up from the radix tree) * * Note that the value returned by radix_tree_tag_get() may not be relied upon * if only the RCU read lock is held. Functions to set/clear tags and to * delete nodes running concurrently with it may affect its result such that * two consecutive reads in the same locked section may return different * values. If reliability is required, modification functions must also be * excluded from concurrency. * * radix_tree_tagged is able to be called without locking or RCU. */ /** * radix_tree_deref_slot - dereference a slot * @slot: slot pointer, returned by radix_tree_lookup_slot * * For use with radix_tree_lookup_slot(). Caller must hold tree at least read * locked across slot lookup and dereference. Not required if write lock is * held (ie. items cannot be concurrently inserted). * * radix_tree_deref_retry must be used to confirm validity of the pointer if * only the read lock is held. * * Return: entry stored in that slot. */ static inline void *radix_tree_deref_slot(void __rcu **slot) { return rcu_dereference(*slot); } /** * radix_tree_deref_slot_protected - dereference a slot with tree lock held * @slot: slot pointer, returned by radix_tree_lookup_slot * * Similar to radix_tree_deref_slot. The caller does not hold the RCU read * lock but it must hold the tree lock to prevent parallel updates. * * Return: entry stored in that slot. */ static inline void *radix_tree_deref_slot_protected(void __rcu **slot, spinlock_t *treelock) { return rcu_dereference_protected(*slot, lockdep_is_held(treelock)); } /** * radix_tree_deref_retry - check radix_tree_deref_slot * @arg: pointer returned by radix_tree_deref_slot * Returns: 0 if retry is not required, otherwise retry is required * * radix_tree_deref_retry must be used with radix_tree_deref_slot. */ static inline int radix_tree_deref_retry(void *arg) { return unlikely(radix_tree_is_internal_node(arg)); } /** * radix_tree_exception - radix_tree_deref_slot returned either exception? * @arg: value returned by radix_tree_deref_slot * Returns: 0 if well-aligned pointer, non-0 if either kind of exception. */ static inline int radix_tree_exception(void *arg) { return unlikely((unsigned long)arg & RADIX_TREE_ENTRY_MASK); } int radix_tree_insert(struct radix_tree_root *, unsigned long index, void *); void *__radix_tree_lookup(const struct radix_tree_root *, unsigned long index, struct radix_tree_node **nodep, void __rcu ***slotp); void *radix_tree_lookup(const struct radix_tree_root *, unsigned long); void __rcu **radix_tree_lookup_slot(const struct radix_tree_root *, unsigned long index); void __radix_tree_replace(struct radix_tree_root *, struct radix_tree_node *, void __rcu **slot, void *entry); void radix_tree_iter_replace(struct radix_tree_root *, const struct radix_tree_iter *, void __rcu **slot, void *entry); void radix_tree_replace_slot(struct radix_tree_root *, void __rcu **slot, void *entry); void radix_tree_iter_delete(struct radix_tree_root *, struct radix_tree_iter *iter, void __rcu **slot); void *radix_tree_delete_item(struct radix_tree_root *, unsigned long, void *); void *radix_tree_delete(struct radix_tree_root *, unsigned long); unsigned int radix_tree_gang_lookup(const struct radix_tree_root *, void **results, unsigned long first_index, unsigned int max_items); int radix_tree_preload(gfp_t gfp_mask); int radix_tree_maybe_preload(gfp_t gfp_mask); void radix_tree_init(void); void *radix_tree_tag_set(struct radix_tree_root *, unsigned long index, unsigned int tag); void *radix_tree_tag_clear(struct radix_tree_root *, unsigned long index, unsigned int tag); int radix_tree_tag_get(const struct radix_tree_root *, unsigned long index, unsigned int tag); void radix_tree_iter_tag_clear(struct radix_tree_root *, const struct radix_tree_iter *iter, unsigned int tag); unsigned int radix_tree_gang_lookup_tag(const struct radix_tree_root *, void **results, unsigned long first_index, unsigned int max_items, unsigned int tag); unsigned int radix_tree_gang_lookup_tag_slot(const struct radix_tree_root *, void __rcu ***results, unsigned long first_index, unsigned int max_items, unsigned int tag); int radix_tree_tagged(const struct radix_tree_root *, unsigned int tag); static inline void radix_tree_preload_end(void) { local_unlock(&radix_tree_preloads.lock); } void __rcu **idr_get_free(struct radix_tree_root *root, struct radix_tree_iter *iter, gfp_t gfp, unsigned long max); enum { RADIX_TREE_ITER_TAG_MASK = 0x0f, /* tag index in lower nybble */ RADIX_TREE_ITER_TAGGED = 0x10, /* lookup tagged slots */ RADIX_TREE_ITER_CONTIG = 0x20, /* stop at first hole */ }; /** * radix_tree_iter_init - initialize radix tree iterator * * @iter: pointer to iterator state * @start: iteration starting index * Returns: NULL */ static __always_inline void __rcu ** radix_tree_iter_init(struct radix_tree_iter *iter, unsigned long start) { /* * Leave iter->tags uninitialized. radix_tree_next_chunk() will fill it * in the case of a successful tagged chunk lookup. If the lookup was * unsuccessful or non-tagged then nobody cares about ->tags. * * Set index to zero to bypass next_index overflow protection. * See the comment in radix_tree_next_chunk() for details. */ iter->index = 0; iter->next_index = start; return NULL; } /** * radix_tree_next_chunk - find next chunk of slots for iteration * * @root: radix tree root * @iter: iterator state * @flags: RADIX_TREE_ITER_* flags and tag index * Returns: pointer to chunk first slot, or NULL if there no more left * * This function looks up the next chunk in the radix tree starting from * @iter->next_index. It returns a pointer to the chunk's first slot. * Also it fills @iter with data about chunk: position in the tree (index), * its end (next_index), and constructs a bit mask for tagged iterating (tags). */ void __rcu **radix_tree_next_chunk(const struct radix_tree_root *, struct radix_tree_iter *iter, unsigned flags); /** * radix_tree_iter_lookup - look up an index in the radix tree * @root: radix tree root * @iter: iterator state * @index: key to look up * * If @index is present in the radix tree, this function returns the slot * containing it and updates @iter to describe the entry. If @index is not * present, it returns NULL. */ static inline void __rcu ** radix_tree_iter_lookup(const struct radix_tree_root *root, struct radix_tree_iter *iter, unsigned long index) { radix_tree_iter_init(iter, index); return radix_tree_next_chunk(root, iter, RADIX_TREE_ITER_CONTIG); } /** * radix_tree_iter_retry - retry this chunk of the iteration * @iter: iterator state * * If we iterate over a tree protected only by the RCU lock, a race * against deletion or creation may result in seeing a slot for which * radix_tree_deref_retry() returns true. If so, call this function * and continue the iteration. */ static inline __must_check void __rcu **radix_tree_iter_retry(struct radix_tree_iter *iter) { iter->next_index = iter->index; iter->tags = 0; return NULL; } static inline unsigned long __radix_tree_iter_add(struct radix_tree_iter *iter, unsigned long slots) { return iter->index + slots; } /** * radix_tree_iter_resume - resume iterating when the chunk may be invalid * @slot: pointer to current slot * @iter: iterator state * Returns: New slot pointer * * If the iterator needs to release then reacquire a lock, the chunk may * have been invalidated by an insertion or deletion. Call this function * before releasing the lock to continue the iteration from the next index. */ void __rcu **__must_check radix_tree_iter_resume(void __rcu **slot, struct radix_tree_iter *iter); /** * radix_tree_chunk_size - get current chunk size * * @iter: pointer to radix tree iterator * Returns: current chunk size */ static __always_inline long radix_tree_chunk_size(struct radix_tree_iter *iter) { return iter->next_index - iter->index; } /** * radix_tree_next_slot - find next slot in chunk * * @slot: pointer to current slot * @iter: pointer to iterator state * @flags: RADIX_TREE_ITER_*, should be constant * Returns: pointer to next slot, or NULL if there no more left * * This function updates @iter->index in the case of a successful lookup. * For tagged lookup it also eats @iter->tags. * * There are several cases where 'slot' can be passed in as NULL to this * function. These cases result from the use of radix_tree_iter_resume() or * radix_tree_iter_retry(). In these cases we don't end up dereferencing * 'slot' because either: * a) we are doing tagged iteration and iter->tags has been set to 0, or * b) we are doing non-tagged iteration, and iter->index and iter->next_index * have been set up so that radix_tree_chunk_size() returns 1 or 0. */ static __always_inline void __rcu **radix_tree_next_slot(void __rcu **slot, struct radix_tree_iter *iter, unsigned flags) { if (flags & RADIX_TREE_ITER_TAGGED) { iter->tags >>= 1; if (unlikely(!iter->tags)) return NULL; if (likely(iter->tags & 1ul)) { iter->index = __radix_tree_iter_add(iter, 1); slot++; goto found; } if (!(flags & RADIX_TREE_ITER_CONTIG)) { unsigned offset = __ffs(iter->tags); iter->tags >>= offset++; iter->index = __radix_tree_iter_add(iter, offset); slot += offset; goto found; } } else { long count = radix_tree_chunk_size(iter); while (--count > 0) { slot++; iter->index = __radix_tree_iter_add(iter, 1); if (likely(*slot)) goto found; if (flags & RADIX_TREE_ITER_CONTIG) { /* forbid switching to the next chunk */ iter->next_index = 0; break; } } } return NULL; found: return slot; } /** * radix_tree_for_each_slot - iterate over non-empty slots * * @slot: the void** variable for pointer to slot * @root: the struct radix_tree_root pointer * @iter: the struct radix_tree_iter pointer * @start: iteration starting index * * @slot points to radix tree slot, @iter->index contains its index. */ #define radix_tree_for_each_slot(slot, root, iter, start) \ for (slot = radix_tree_iter_init(iter, start) ; \ slot || (slot = radix_tree_next_chunk(root, iter, 0)) ; \ slot = radix_tree_next_slot(slot, iter, 0)) /** * radix_tree_for_each_tagged - iterate over tagged slots * * @slot: the void** variable for pointer to slot * @root: the struct radix_tree_root pointer * @iter: the struct radix_tree_iter pointer * @start: iteration starting index * @tag: tag index * * @slot points to radix tree slot, @iter->index contains its index. */ #define radix_tree_for_each_tagged(slot, root, iter, start, tag) \ for (slot = radix_tree_iter_init(iter, start) ; \ slot || (slot = radix_tree_next_chunk(root, iter, \ RADIX_TREE_ITER_TAGGED | tag)) ; \ slot = radix_tree_next_slot(slot, iter, \ RADIX_TREE_ITER_TAGGED | tag)) #endif /* _LINUX_RADIX_TREE_H */